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Atenció: Aquest fil té més d'un any d'antiguitat, i els seus continguts podrien haver quedar obsolets.

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Fil de la repercussió internacional de la Via Catalana

Aloja (15693 missatges)

Amb més de 200 mitjans estrangers acreditats semblaria que hi ha d'haver algun lloc per a anar-los recollint ordenadament totes les referències que trobem, no?

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  • Aloja (15693 missatges)

    BARCELONA, Catalonia (AFP) –  Hundreds of thousands of Catalans will unite to create a 400-kilometre (250-mile) human chain on September 11, part of a spectacular campaign for independence fiercely opposed by Madrid.

    Some 400,000 people aim to join hands along the entire coastline of the northeastern region of Catalonia to demand an historic redrawing of the map of Spain.

    The protest is being organised by Catalan separatists on the region's national day, or Diada, which recalls the final defeat of Catalan troops by Spanish King Philip V's forces in 1714.

    Although the event is tagged the "The Catalan Way Towards Independence", the route faces a major roadblock in the form of the Spanish government.

    Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy's right-leaning administration refuses to countenance a breakup of Spain, and has vowed to block a referendum on self-rule that Catalan president Artur Mas has promised for 2014.

    In a sign of its determination, Madrid called on the Constitutional Court to strike down the region's latest attempt to assert itself: a parliamentary declaration of sovereignty in January.

    The court agreed to hear the case, meaning the declaration is suspended until it makes a ruling.

    Proud of their distinct language and culture, yet suffering in Spain's recession, many of the 7.5 million people in debt-laden Catalonia resent seeing their taxes redistributed to other parts of the country.

    Catalonia has a jobless rate of 23.85 percent -- lower than the national average of 26.26 percent but still painfully high -- and a public debt of 50.9 billion euros ($67 billion).

    The region had to go cap in hand to Madrid in January to ask for 9.07 billion euros ($11.9 billion) from a fund to help debt-laden regions.

    Hundreds of thousands of people joined in a huge national day rally last year as Catalan separatist stirrings were stoked by the cuts to health and education services.

    Yet a year later their aspirations remain frustrated.

    Just days before the Diada, Catalonia's political chief seemed to cast doubt on the 2014 referendum in a radio interview.

    The 2014 poll would be organised respecting the law and with the agreement of Spanish government, Mas said, adding that such support was unlikely.

    If Madrid refused to relent, Catalans could use regional government elections scheduled for 2016 as an alternative form of plebiscite, he argued.

    But the next day Mas insisted that the 2014 referendum would go ahead "one way or the other".

    Catalans, who have a reputation as impeccable organisers, say the human chain will pass through 86 cities, towns and villages over more than 400 km.

    A total 350,000 people have so far signed up for the chain in Catalonia, according to the latest update by the organisers, the Catalan National Assembly.

    About 5,000 volunteers will help run the protest. Some 1,500 buses will help move protesters into position.

    Police will deploy 4,000 officers including in the regional capital Barcelona, where anti-independence protesters calling for Spanish unity are also seeking permission to rally.

    Catalan activists say they are organising 110 smaller human chains in advance of September 11, with rallies in Australia, Africa, Asia, including one at the Great Wall of China, and the Americas.

    The protest is an attempt to emulate the 1989 Baltic Way chain that called for the independence of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania during the breakup of the Soviet Union.

    "There are big countries and small countries in the world, some industrialised and some not, and they all survive," said economics professor Antonio Argandona of the IESE Business School in Barcelona.

    "So, can Catalonia survive? Yes, in the sense that it has a sufficiently solid economy to find its way," he said, warning however that it would still carry a price.

    "It all depends on how a possible independence with Madrid is negotiated."

    Mas has said he supports the protest but will not join in himself, out of respect for his role as political leader of all Catalans, including those that want to remain part of Spain.

     

     

  • Elbarrufetflordestiu (4879 missatges)

    No correm tant. Hem d'estar preparats per si l'estat espanyol ens boicoteja fins i tot això i no tenim la repercussió internacional esperada. Sincerament, espero que sí que tinguem de repercussió, la gesta fins i tot si plovent la gent hi va, serà èpica pel nostre poble però recordeu que el concert per la llibertat no va tenir el ressò volgut.

     

     

    Dit això, que tot el món sàpiga que som Catalunya, una bella i vella nació europea que vol exercir el seu dret a decidir i a l'autodeterminació per assolir la independència i a diferència del cas Escòcia-Gran Bretanya, el govern de l'estat espanyol no ens vol permetre decidir.

  • Anònim10 (4396 missatges)

    Edita el títol: La cadena humana no està aconseguint tenir ressò internacional.

  • front_sobirà (5723 missatges)

    Gran fil! Li falta un [fil únic!] però potser també val la pena que se n'obrin d'altres... ens veiem al tram 17!

  • Aloja (15693 missatges)

    http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424127887324324404579041122800860290.html

     

    Catalan Separatists to Link for Independence Cause

    Secessionists Hope to Revitalize Movement With 249-Mile Human Chain

     

     

    [image]EFE/Sipa Press

    People practiced in Barcelona last week for a 400-kilometer human chain that will span Catalonia Sept. 11.

    BARCELONA—Catalan independence activists want to revitalize their movement with a more eye-catching protest than a mass street rally staged a year ago: a 400-kilometer (249-mile) human chain traversing Catalonia from the Pyrenees Mountains to the Mediterranean Sea.

    Secessionists in Spain's richest region are counting on the Sept. 11 spectacle, dubbed the Catalan Way Toward Independence, to help them recapture lost political momentum ahead of what could be a decisive year for their cause.

    The chain, which will require at least 400,000 demonstrators to fill its ranks, will follow the ancient Roman route of the Via Augusta, snaking through canyons, beaches and farmland, as well as the streets of 86 communities. To transport demonstrators, organizers plan to deploy more than 1,000 buses, some of which will be brought from other provinces or neighboring France. Recording the event will be 800 photographers on the ground, along with a small fleet of drones and light planes in the air.

    The demonstration, taking place on a regional holiday, is designed to press regional and national leaders for a referendum on independence in 2014, a year that coincides with the 300th anniversary of Catalonia's defeat by the Spanish crown after the bloody siege of Barcelona. (It is symbolically significant that participants will link hands at 5:14 p.m., or 17:14 military time.)

    Catalonia, Spain's most industrialized region, has long asserted that the central government discriminates against its language and culture while siphoning off much more in tax revenue than it returns in investment. But the administration in Madrid has refused to hear any talk of a referendum, arguing that Catalonia has benefited from national policies, such as the central government's rescue of a poorly-run regional bank in 2011. Spain's painful recession has intensified the disputes over public finances—and pro-separatist sentiment in Catalonia.

    This year's demonstration presents more challenges than last year's separatist rally—when some one million people flooded the streets of Barcelona—because of the daunting logistical chore of transporting participants to sparsely populated places along the route, organizers say.

    "Last year we were bringing all of Catalonia to Barcelona," said Ferran Civit, a lead organizer for the Catalan National Assembly, the region's biggest pro-independence group. "This year, we're moving all of Barcelona to Catalonia."

    Organizers are drawing inspiration from Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, where protesters formed a million-person human chain stretching 600 kilometers in 1989 to protest the oppression of those Baltic Republics under Soviet rule. Within several months, Lithuania declared independence from the Soviet Union, which then collapsed in 1991. Catalan organizers have flown in Baltic advisers to help them with the chain.

    Catalans who oppose secession say they are offended by the implication that Spain's central government in some way resembles the Soviet Union.

    "That kind of parallelism is worrisome because it distorts the reality of the relationship between Catalonia and the rest of the country," said Andrea Levy, a leader of the Catalan branch of the conservative Popular Party, which governs nationally.

    [image]

    The Barcelona march a year ago, which drew an estimated 15% to 20% of the region's population, briefly put the long-feeble Catalan independence movement at the forefront of the political debate over Europe's debt crisis. It also highlighted the strains between wealthier and poorer regions of nations on the Continent.

    But a tactical miscalculation by the head of the Catalan regional government, Artur Mas, cut short the separatist movement's momentum. Seeking to ride the postdemonstration political wave, Mr. Mas and his center-right Convergence and Union party formally embraced independence and called an election last November to bolster the region's negotiating position with Madrid.

    Pro-independence candidates on the whole gained ground in Catalonia's parliament in that election. But Mr. Mas's party lost seats, hobbling the leader who had styled himself the movement's leader. A spokesman said Mr. Mas, who has pledged to push through the independence referendum, supports the chain and will meet with organizers but won't take a place on the route himself.

    As a consequence of Mr. Mas's electoral gambit "some people lost sight of the fact that this is fundamentally a grass-roots movement," said Elisenda Paluzie i Hernàndez, dean of economics at the University of Barcelona, who has registered for a spot in the chain.

    In all, 14 nongovernmental groups are organizing the chain. Along each 500-meter stretch of the route, a coordinator will be charged with mustering and lining up the demonstrators. A special mobile phone app will offer demonstrators practical information on their portion of the chain. Catalans abroad also will form chains in dozens of cities, from Tokyo to Cincinnati, Ohio, organizers say.

    Skeptics question whether independence backers can pull off a feat requiring such a combination of ideological zeal and organizational sophistication.

    "As average Catalans realize that the independence leaders are actually serious about secession, they are having second thoughts about participating," said Ángel Hernández Guardia, leader of an anti-independence group called 12-O, named for Spain's Oct. 12 national holiday. It plans to stage a counter protest on Sept. 11.

    One volunteer promoting the pro-independence chain is Anna Aroca, who runs Help Catalonia, a 3-year-old website that aggregates and translates articles about the region in five languages.

    Ms. Aroca recently sent a message on her mobile phone asking contacts for status reports from Catalan communities that have been holding trial runs for the chain. Quickly she received a photo of activists forming a chain in a ravine and another of protesters hand-in-hand on a city street.

    Then came another photo, showing denizens of a nude beach holding hands to support independence. "I told you, there is very broad-based support for our cause," she said.

    One practice run recently took place in the town of Granollers, just outside of Barcelona. An hour before the trial was to begin, Maria Dolors Taulats, a 57-year-old translator who is leading local demonstrators, was pacing nervously around the ancient town plaza, unsure of how the event would come off.

    "If only three people come, we'll form a chain around a rock on the square," she said. "If we get 150, we'll form a chain around the square itself. If it's 500 people, we'll hold hands out on the main street." In the end, a couple of thousand people turned out for the practice, and the chain wound from the square through the town's main downtown streets.

  • Aloja (15693 missatges)

    http://www.worldbulletin.net/?aType=haber&ArticleID=117138

     

    Human chain for Catalan independence organized

    Catalans will form a human chain along the 400 km seashore of Spain's Catalonia region under the leadership of non governmental organization Catalan National Assembly with the theme "Catalan way to independence" on September 11, the Catalonian national day

     

    World Bulletin/News Desk

    Catalans will form a human chain along the 400 km seashore of Spain's Catalonia region under the leadership of non governmental organization the Catalan National Assembly (ANC) with the theme "Catalan way to independence" on September 11, the Catalonian national day. The event aims to both menace Madrid and make Catalan's voice heard in the world.    

    ANC officials told reporters that they were working to construct the Catalonian government and stressed that as Catalans they had reached their redline on the issue.

    "We can bear no more. Catalans want a referendum as soon as possible for the foundation of their own state," the officials said.

    Vice President of the ANC Jaume Marfany stated that the event on September 11 will be a "peaceful rally" where they will demand their independence to show their democratic and pluralist demands and to announce that they want to become a new, independent European country. 

    ANC officials also reminded that the head of the Catalonia autonomous government, Arthur Mas, had sent a letter to Spanish Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy in July to which there had been no reponse. The letter offered 5 separate models were offered to hold a legal referendum in 2014. He noted that if the 2014 referendum were blocked, they would try for new solutions.  

    86 Catalan municipalities and 30,000 volunteers will participate in the human chain. The biggest one will be organized in the city of Barcelona. 1.5 million participants, 20% of Catalan population, are expected to join the movement. The catenation activity will also take place in world famous touristic cites such as the Sacred Family Church and Nou Camp Stadium.

    Similar human chains will organized in 55 cities around the world between September 1-11 to support an independent Catalonia.

  • jamessbd (4370 missatges)

    Olympic Games 2020 decision brings mixed feelings in Spain and Turkey

    Disappointment of Tokyo winning the bid accompanied by relief from Istanbul anti-Games protesters and joy in Barcelona.

    A tense crowd in Madrid awaits for the International Olympic Committee decision on the 2020 Games. Photograph: Czuko Williams/Demotix/Corbis

    A tense crowd in Madrid awaits for the International Olympic Committee decision on the 2020 Games. Photograph: Czuko Williams/Demotix/Corbis As any Olympian will tell you, coming second or third doesn't feel so great, especially when it's a winner-takes-all race.

     

    Istanbul and Madrid had few options on Sunday but to turn back to old problems rather than enjoy a new challenge. Tokyo got the Games; Madrid went back to its recession, Turkey to its protesters.

     

    Turkish prime minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan couldn't hide his disappointment. "Instead of giving the Olympics to a city that has hosted the Games before, they could have made a better choice along the values of globalising [the Olympics]," he said.

     

    However, not everybody was disappointed. Local anti-Olympics activists argued that the Games would have been an urban disaster for Istanbul, with thousands displaced and the urban structure destroyed by expensive mega-projects. This summer's protests were originally sparked over plans to redevelop a cherished park in the city. "In the name of the city I am happy with this result. An Olympic bid that is based solely on construction and construction projects is not sustainable, and the vote in Buenos Aires proved that," one member of the No to the Olympics group said.

     

    For Madrid, those who hoped it would be third time lucky found instead that it was three strikes and you're out, as the city woke up to the hangover of an economy that continues in crisis and youth unemployment at record levels of 56%. "The great disappointment," shouted the front page of El Mundo, while ABC said: "Goodbye to the Olympic dream." The Spanish prime minister, Mariano Rajoy, tried to be sporting, saying, "There are times in life, and not only in sport, when you win, and times you lose."

     

    There were some, though, who revelled in Madrid's defeat, and on Twitter, many Catalans in Barcelona, which so successfully hosted the Games of 1992, started the hashtag #madrid2MILnunca (#Madrid2000andNever), mocking the idea that Madrid would ever get to host the Games. Another user tweeted: "It's for days like this that Twitter was invented" as they took pleasure in Madrid's suffering. This was perhaps uUnsurprisingly this comes just days before the Catalan day of independence, when a human chain is expected to cross the Catalonia region, in the latest effort to push for independence from Madrid.

     

    Sergio Ramos, a star of the Real Madrid team, won't have won many friends in the capital last night, tweeting a picture of himself eating sushi , which was perhaps a little raw given Japan had won the rights to host the Games.

     

    Font:  http://www.theguardian.com/sport/2013/sep/08/olympic-games-2020-spain-turkey-reaction

  • Aloja (15693 missatges)

    http://www.thelocal.es/20130908/catalans-gear-up-for-400km-human-chain

     

    Catalans gear up for 400km human chain

    Organizers hope to draw international attention to the separatist cause via a human chain that spans the region. Photo: Flickr/Assemblea.cat

    Catalans gear up for 400km human chain

     

     

    The 'Catalan Route to Independence' organized by the Catalan National Assembly (ANC) aims to draw international attention to the separatist cause.

    It is based on a similar, successful human chain that took place in Estonia in 1989 to support the independence campaign in the Baltic states, according to Catalan daily La Vanguardia.

    The Estonian organizers, who attracted 150,000 people to form a 215km line, have shared their experiences with the ANC.

    One of the lessons learned was the need for practice chains. To that end, more than 100 smaller events have been held or are planned across Catalonia at local public celebrations and events, as well as by supporters in Brazil, the USA, Uruguay, Argentina, Toronto, Japan and Germany.

    300,000 people, including many senior politicians, have already signed up to participate in the human chain on September 11th.

    That date is better known locally as La Diada – the national day of Catalonia.

    On the same day last year, more than one million people demonstrated on the streets of Barcelona in support of Catalan independence.

  • Bonanit_92 (2967 missatges)

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

  • Aloja (15693 missatges)

    A l'Índia hi ha hagut una cadena de 175 km i ni us n'heu assabentat:

     

    http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/andhra-pradesh/175kmlong-human-chain-in-srikakulam/article5079807.ece

     

    Espero que ens ho sapiguem muntar millor.

  • catalàamallorca (17864 missatges)

    Hi ha alguna notícia de les cadenes humanes fetes a l'estranger?

  • Aloja (15693 missatges)

     

    http://uk.reuters.com/article/2013/09/09/uk-spain-catalonia-idUKBRE9880H720130909

     

    (Reuters) - Catalan separatists will mark their national day on Wednesday with demonstrations and renewed calls for a break from Spain - but leaders of both camps are indicating they would prefer negotiation to confrontation.

     

    Hundreds of thousands of Catalans plan to form a 400-km (250 mile) human chain across the northeastern region, from Valencia to the French border.


    They will join hands in an unbroken line at 1714 local time to remember the defeat of Catalan forces on September 11, 1714, by Philip V of Spain after a 13-month siege of Barcelona.


    The demonstrators aim to revive their push for secession after huge pro-independence marches last year. That surge in secessionist fervour led to a pledge from Catalan President Artur Mas to hold a referendum in 2014.

     

    But this year things may be different for the region of 7.6 million people, traditionally wealthy but now strapped for cash.

     

    Twelve months after a double dispute over the poll and a Catalonian drive for more tax autonomy, Mas and Spanish Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy have signalled they are willing to talk.

     

    Rajoy said on Friday he hoped "reasonable things" could be done with Catalonia and he was ready to carry on with talks that started secretly in August.

     

    Hours earlier, Mas had said he would not call for a referendum unless he had the green light from the central government, and could even delay a vote until 2016.

     

    His more conciliatory tone angered his coalition partners - leftist separatists the Catalan Republican Left (ERC) - and he rowed back, saying he still hoped to hold a referendum in 2014.

     

    DIALOGUE

     

    Many in Madrid and Barcelona believe Rajoy and Mas, although they often play hard ball, have no choice but to negotiate.

     

    Rajoy needs Mas to make sure budget cuts and economic reforms are implemented in Catalonia, which accounts for about one fifth of Spain's economic output.

     

    The premier, who says Spain is recovering more quickly than expected from a five-year economic slump, also wants to send abroad an image of stability.

     

    It is also in Rajoy's interest to keep the conservative Mas in power as the more radical ERC surges in Catalonian polls.

     

    Mas, on the other hand, needs Rajoy to keep providing financial support so he can maintain his wobbly coalition with the ERC and win back voters disillusioned with spending cuts.

     

    Mas has suggested he could call early elections as a plebiscite on independence. But with his Convergence and Union, or CiU, alliance trailing in the polls, he can no longer afford to do so.

     

    "I don't think there is an alternative to dialogue, with Madrid and Catalonia both recognising that they share a common problem and need to resolve it," said a Catalan business executive who asked not to be named. "They will have to find a shared solution."

     

    He said a possible basis for a deal could be a new financial regime allowing Catalonia to have more say on taxes and limit the amount of financial transfers it makes every year to the rest of Spanish regions.

     

    Economists calculate Catalans pay at least 12 billion euros more in taxes per year to Madrid than they receive back for services like schools and hospitals.

     

    "Mas is now ready to listen to a good offer on a tax pact," the executive said.

     

    RISKS

     

    Others, such as the Socialist opposition and smaller groups in Catalonia, promote a constitutional reform to transform Spain into a federal state like Germany, giving regions more control over their own politics and finances.

     

    "The independence view dominates right now in the public sphere but I am sure that some of the people backing it would be satisfied with a tax pact and a reformed state," said Manel Cruz, a philosopher who teaches at Barcelona University.

     

    An opinion poll showed 40 percent of Catalans said they were in favour of independence, while another 25 percent said they backed greater autonomy from the central government.

     

    However, whether Rajoy can and wants to make an offer along those lines is another question.

    By offering a tax pact to Catalonia, even in a watered down version, he would extinguish one fire but risks igniting new ones in other regions such as Valencia or Andalusia, where local governments from his People's Party and the Socialists have long campaigned for more financial leeway.

     

    "If there is any special treatment to Catalonia, there will be a revolution," says Fernando Fernandez, a professor of economics at IE business school in Madrid.

     

    He believes the Catalan stand-off is the main risk hanging over Spain's tentative economic recovery.

    "To me, confrontation is unavoidable," he said. "Now that the genie of independence is out of the bottle, there is no easy way to put it back in."

    (Editing by Fiona Ortiz and Angus MacSwan)

  • Aloja (15693 missatges)

    'Catalan Way Towards Independence' — human chain to span region

    Barcelona - As was done in Estonia in 1989, supporters of Catalan independence are planning to stage a human chain across the region on September 11, Catalonia's national day. Trial runs are already ongoing.
    A similar and very successful human chain took place in Estonia in 1989 in support of the independence of the Baltic States. At that stage, they built a chain of 150,000 people, forming a 215 km line across the country. Latvia and Lithuania also participated in what was known as the "Baltic Way". A historic image from that time is included below:
    Historic photograph of the Baltic way taken near the border between Latvia and Lithuania in August 1...
    Figuura
    Historic photograph of the Baltic way taken near the border between Latvia and Lithuania in August 1989.
    Now organizers from Estonia are assisting Catalan independence supporters with their plans. Reportedly Estonian organizers learned the importance of practice chains and they held smaller events before the main human chain was formed. According to the Catalan National Assembly (ANC), it will take about 100 trial runs to ensure success before attempting to span the Catalonia region on September 11. The actual path of the planned human chain is listed on Wikipedia on a page created for the event. However, the "The Catalan Way Towards Independence" aims to draw international attention to the separatist cause. Not only will this event happen in Catalonia, as international chains are being planned in full support. Similar celebrations and events will be held by supporters in Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Costa Rica, England, France, German, Hong Kong, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Mexico, Poland, Scotland, Switzerland, Thailand, Uruguay, the USA and other countries. Apparently the Irish are planning a major event in Dublin and the website, An Phoblacht, lists all the major events worldwide. An Phoblacht is monthly newspaper published by Sinn Féin in Ireland. The Irish website quotes one of the Catalan activist organizers in Dublin, Alba Diví Carné as saying: “We want this human chain to extend beyond the borders of our country and reach everyone who is a friend of Catalonia and supports the people’s right of self-determination." “Up to 11 September, the ANC Catalan Foreign Assemblies are organizing ‘The International Catalan Way’, small-scale replicas of the human chain in Catalonia in the main cities of the world." “So you can join us in Dublin on Saturday 1 September at 5:30pm at the General Post Office in O'Connell Street." “This will be a unique event to celebrate freedom and solidarity. And, needless to say, the more people that join us, the bigger impact it will have for our cause." “We hope you will help us spread the voice and that there will be a lot of Irish people showing their support for Catalunya, and our fight to achieve independence democratically.” Please note in the above quote Catalonia was spelled both the English pronunciation (Catalonia) and Catalan spelling (Catalunya). In Spanish, the region is spelled Cataluña. According to Spanish media, 300,000 people, including many senior politicians, have signed up to participate in the human chain event on September 11, the day which is better known locally as "La Diada", the national day of Catalonia. Last year's event saw more than one million people rallying in the streets of Barcelona in support of Catalan independence. Digital Journal reported at the time, together with a video of the event.
  • Aloja (15693 missatges)

    http://www.berliner-zeitung.de/politik/katalonien-katalanen-wollen-unabhaengigkeit,10808018,24247068.html

     

    Katalanen wollen Unabhängigkeit

     

    VIC –  Menschenketten, Demonstrationen und bald ein Referendum: Den Katalanen ist es ernst mit ihrem Wunsch nach Unabhängigkeit. Sie wollen ihren Wohlstand nicht länger dem kriselnden Spanien opfern. Das stünde ohne seine wichtigste Industrieregion noch viel schlechter da.Um zu zeigen, dass fast alle hier denken wie er, muss Josep Maria Vila d’Abadal nur auf den Balkon des Rathauses treten. Er öffnet die Tür und geht ins Freie, sofort bilden sich Schweißperlen auf seiner Stirn, die Mittagshitze im katalanischen Hinterland ist unerbittlich. An jedem Haus auf dem Marktplatz hängen mehrere Fahnen, vier rote Streifen auf gelbem Grund, in den ein blaues Dreieck mit weißem Stern ragt. Die Estelada, die Unabhängigkeitsflagge Kataloniens. Bürgermeister d’Abadal stößt eine zufriedenen Seufzer aus, „ein toller Anblick“, sagt er.

     

    Auch am Rathausbalkon hängt eine Unabhängigkeitsflagge – eine Provokation, dort müsste eigentlich die Flagge Spaniens angebracht sein. Josep Maria Vila d’Abadal hat kein Problem damit, gegen spanisches Recht zu verstoßen. Er kämpft schließlich dafür, dass die Spanier bald nichts mehr zu sagen haben in Katalonien

     

    Wer Vic besucht, reist ins Herz der katalanischen Unabhängigkeitsbewegung. Nirgendwo ist der Wunsch nach einer Abspaltung von Spanien größer als in der 40 000-Einwohner-Stadt im Norden Kataloniens. Bei einem formlosen Referendum stimmten 98 Prozent der Wahlberechtigten von Vic für einen solchen Schritt. Die Abstimmung, die in allen katalanischen Städten durchgeführt wurde, hat rechtlich keine Legitimation, dennoch ist der Bürgermeister stolz auf das Ergebnis. Aber auch darauf, dass sich weitere 671 von 946 Gemeinden für die Unabhängigkeit ausgesprochen haben. Sie haben sich zur „Associació de Municipis per la Independència“ zusammengeschlossen, zu einer Unabhängigkeitsorganisation. Josep Maria Vila d’Abadal ist ihr Präsident.

     

    Entspannt sitzt der 59-Jährige in seinem Amtszimmer, er hat das Jackett abgelegt. Über seinen Kampf spricht er mit kühler Selbstsicherheit, als ob der schon fast gewonnen wäre. „Katalonien wird unabhängig sein“, sagt er. Dass die Gegend im Nordosten Spaniens als eine von 17 autonomen Regionen des Landes nicht mal eben austreten kann, interessiert ihn nicht sonderlich. Eben so wenig wie die Ankündigung spanischer Politiker, dass man eine Unabhängigkeit niemals zulassen werde und den Separatisten notfalls mit dem Militär Einheit gebieten wolle. „Wir werden unabhängig sein“, wiederholt Josep Maria Vila d'Abadal. „Sonst sterben wir. Als Nation.“

     

    Mit ihrem Wunsch nach Selbstbestimmung sind die Katalanen nicht allein. In einigen Teilen Europas gewinnen Separatistenbewegungen an Zuspruch. In Belgien etwa würden sich die Flamen lieber heute als morgen von den Wallonen abspalten, Norditalien hat schon lange genug von Süditalien, im September 2014 entscheidet das schottische Volk darüber, ob es weiter zum britischen Königreich gehören will oder nicht. Die Gründe sind unterschiedlich: Mal wollen wohlhabende Regionen nicht mehr für ihre ärmeren Landsleute geradestehen, mal gewinnt die Sehnsucht nach einer eigenen Identität an Bedeutung. Weil auf Katalonien mit seinen 7,5 Millionen Bewohnern beides zutrifft, wird der Kampf um die Unabhängigkeit dort besonders emotional geführt.

    Menschenkette unter Wasser

    Rund 400.000 Menschen sollen an diesem Mittwoch, dem Nationalfeiertag Kataloniens, eine 400 Kilometer lange Kette entlang der katalanischen Mittelmeerküste bilden. Es soll der Höhepunkt der Aktionen der vergangenen Monate werden, 105 Menschenketten von im Ausland lebenden Katalanen, in vielen Ländern und sogar unter Wasser. Hat 2010 nur jeder Vierte für einen eigenen Staat votiert, tut es nach einer Umfrage des katalanischen Instituts für Meinungsforschung mittlerweile schon eine Mehrheit von 56 Prozent.

     

    Verantwortlich dafür, so sagt es Bürgermeister d’Abadal, seien die Spanier selbst. Weil sie nicht den Dialog mit Katalonien suchten. Wie vor drei Jahren, als ein Urteil des spanischen Verfassungsgerichts die jetzige Unabhängigkeitsbewegung in Gang setzte. In dem 2006 verabschiedeten Autonomiestatut Kataloniens wurden 14 Artikel für ungültig erklärt, unter anderem auch jener Passus, der den Katalanen eine Herzensangelegenheit ist: die Feststellung, dass sie eine Nation sind.

    In seiner Stadt sind 98 Prozent für die Unabhängigkeit: Josep Maria Vila d’Abadal, kämpferischer Bürgermeister von Vic.
    In seiner Stadt sind 98 Prozent für die Unabhängigkeit: Josep Maria Vila d’Abadal, kämpferischer Bürgermeister von Vic.

    Foto: ALBERT GEA/REUTERS

    Vom 10. bis zum 18. Jahrhundert war Katalonien ein freier, selbstbestimmter Staat, mit eigener Sprache und Kultur. Im Spanischen Erbfolgekrieg, der von 1701 bis 1714 dauerte, eroberten die Armeen der Bourbonen die Region, die auf der einen Seite von den Pyrenäen, auf der anderen vom Mittelmeer begrenzt wird. Sämtliche politischen und kulturellen Institutionen wurden aufgelöst, die Sprache verboten. Nur im Untergrund lebten die katalanische Kultur und die Sprache weiter. Mit dem Ende der Franco-Diktatur 1975 konnte sich Katalonien zwar einige Rechte zurück erkämpfen, die Unabhängigkeit allerdings nicht.

     

    „Wir fühlten uns nie wirklich wie Spanier und tun es auch heute nicht“, sagt Clàudia Garcia und ihr mädchenhaftes Gesicht wird ernst. Die 24-Jährige sitzt in ihrem Jugendzimmer im Haus ihrer Eltern in Granollers, 30 Autominuten entfernt von Barcelona. Das Zimmer ist klein, es ist gerade Platz für ein Bett, einen Kleiderschrank, Fotos der Familie an der Wand und drei katalanische Flaggen.

     

    Clàudia Garcia war schon bei einigen Demonstrationen, auch am 11. September 2012, als knapp eine Million Menschen auf Barcelonas Straßen gegen die spanische Politik aufbegehrten. Sie ist eine der vielen jungen Katalanen zwischen 20 und 40 Jahren, die das Fundament dieser Bewegung bilden. Sie sagt, ihr Erweckungserlebnis habe sie mit 18 Jahren gehabt, als sie an einer Universität in Barcelona Übersetzung zu studieren begann.

    „Wir sind anders“

    In ihrem Kurs gab es zwei Gruppen, die einen übersetzten überwiegend ins Katalanische, die anderen ins Spanische. Je nachdem, auf welche Sprache sich die Studenten mehr konzentrieren wollten. Schnell grenzte man sich auch außerhalb des Hörsaals ab. Die Katalanen waren stolz auf ihre Muttersprache, die Spanier wollten damit nichts zu tun haben. „Von da an wurde mir immer klarer, dass wir anders sind als die Spanier“, sagt Clàudia Garcia.

     

    Sie nimmt eine der Unabhängigkeitsflaggen von der Wand. Die will sie mitnehmen zum „Concert per la Llibertat“, zum Freiheitskonzert, zu dem sie gleich fahren wird. Wenig später steht sie mit 200 anderen am Busbahnhof, vier Busse fahren von Granollers zum Fußballstadion in Barcelona. Auf der Fahrt zeigt man sich gegenseitig die Unabhängigkeitsflaggen an den Häusern draußen, ein Mann zählt zuerst noch laut mit und hört dann auf, es sind zu viele.

     

    Im Stadion des FC Barcelona bleiben kaum noch Plätze frei, 90.000 Menschen sind aus ganz Katalonien gekommen. „Visca Catalunya“ rufen sie, es lebe Katalonien, sie halten rote, gelbe und blaue Pappen hoch, die von weit weg betrachtet zwei Worte und eine Zahl ergeben: Catalonia – Freedom – 2014. Im kommenden Jahr soll es ein offizielles Referendum zu den Abspaltungsplänen geben.

     

    Das Konzertprogramm besteht aus Volksliedern und emotionalen Appellen von über 400 Schauspielern, Politikern und Musikern. Sie beschwören den Traum der Katalanen, und dass sie ihn nicht träumen, sondern leben sollen. Clàudia Garcia sitzt knapp unter dem Dach des Stadions, doch selbst dort oben vibrieren die Sitze von den trampelnden und wild klatschenden Zuschauern.

     

    Besonders laut wird es, als ein Sänger auf der Bühne über die katalanische Sprache spricht. Das sei ein wichtiges Thema, ruft Garcia durch den Lärm, und sie erzählt von ihrer kleinen Schwester Maria, die in zwei Jahren in die Schule kommt. Im Moment wird der Unterricht in katalanischen Schulen auf Katalanisch abgehalten und gleichzeitig Spanisch als zweite Muttersprache gelernt. Geht es aber nach dem spanischen Bildungsminister José Ignacio Wert, dann würde Maria demnächst überwiegend in Spanisch unterrichtet werden. Was die Spanier als Einigung des Landes begrüßen, ist für die Katalanen ein schwerer Eingriff in das autonome Bildungssystem. Und ein weiterer Riss, der den Graben immer größer werden lässt.

     

    Als die Nacht kommt, wird es ruhiger im Stadion. Die Lieder sind nun verträumter, die Menschen, die vorhin noch vor der Bühne getanzt haben, lehnen sich aneinander. Fünf Stunden dauert das Konzert, zweieinhalb waren geplant. Um zwei Uhr morgens steigen Clàudia Garcia und ihre Freunde wieder in den Bus, es ist still, alle dösen vor sich hin. Nur ein Mann summt ein Volkslied, das auch beim Konzert gespielt wurde.

     

    Die Sehnsucht nach Unabhängigkeit hat allerdings nicht nur mit dem katalanischen Identitätsgefühl zu tun. Die Ökonomie ist genauso wichtig. Dass die Separatistenbewegung so viel Zuspruch findet, liegt auch an der wirtschaftlichen Krise in Spanien. Katalonien ist ein wichtiger Motor der spanischen Wirtschaft, die hier lebenden 16 Prozent der spanischen Bevölkerung erarbeiteten zuletzt ein Fünftel des Bruttoinlandsprodukts. Doch gleichzeitig beträgt die Arbeitslosigkeit in Katalonien 24 Prozent, mit 51 Milliarden Euro ist die Region verschuldet. Es muss immer mehr gespart werden, an der Kultur, an der Bildung. Grund sind die hohen Steuern, die jährlich im Rahmen des Länderfinanzausgleichs an die Zentralregierung in Madrid abgeführt werden müssen. Acht bis zehn Prozent des Bruttoinlandsprodukts sind das durchschnittlich. Im Jahr 2010 etwa flossen 16 Milliarden Euro an die Zentralregierung, die das Geld an ärmere Regionen verteilte. Zum Vergleich: Bayern, Höchstzahler beim deutschen Länderfinanzausgleich, musste im Jahr 2012 vier Milliarden Euro entrichten.

     

    Kritik üben die Katalanen vor allem an der spanischen Regierungspartei Partido Popular, kurz PP, und deren Ministerpräsidenten Mariano Rajoy. Der katalanische Regionalpräsident Artur Mas unternahm in der Vergangenheit viele Versuche, finanzielle Erleichterungen durchzusetzen. Ohne Erfolg.

     

    Außerhalb Kataloniens ist man die Unabhängigkeitsbestrebungen leid, für viele Spanier ist die Bewegung purer Nationalismus. Worte wie Egoismus und Weinerlichkeit fallen oft, „messianisches Erlösungsgeschrei“, gebe die Bewegung von sich, findet der spanische Politologe Fernando Vallespín. Der TV-Sender Telemadrid zeigte vor einiger Zeit einen Bericht, in dem Artur Mas mit Hitler und Stalin verglichen wurde. Und der Chefredakteur der großen Tageszeitung El Mundo twitterte nach einem Spiel des FC Barcelona, dass die vielen Unabhängigkeitsflaggen im Stadion ihn an Nazi-Deutschland erinnert hätten.

     

    Die Verständnislosigkeit mischt sich bei den Spaniern mit Angst. Im Fall einer Abspaltung Kataloniens verlöre das Land nämlich seine wichtigste Industrieregion und sänke nach Berechnungen von Experten im Pro-Kopf-Einkommen auf das Niveau von Griechenland oder Portugal. „Ohne Katalonien kann Spanien nicht beim Euro bleiben“, sagte Justizminister Alberto Ruiz Gallardón schon Ende 2012 ganz offen vor katalanischen Unternehmern. „Spanien wäre bedeutungslos.“

     

    Deshalb ist es nur verständlich, was Spaniens Regierung in der Folge verkündete: Es gebe nicht nur rechtliche und institutionelle Instrumente, um das geplante Referendum zur Unabhängigkeit zu verhindern, sondern auch eine Regierung, die bereit sei, diese einzusetzen. Das Referendumsprojekt sei illegal und nicht mit der spanischen Verfassung vereinbar.

     

    Dass die Katalanen Spanien finanziell in den Abgrund stürzen könnten, stört sie nicht. Dass sie damit den Anschein erwecken, egoistisch zu handeln, auch nicht. Unverdrossen treiben sie das Referendumsprojekt voran, das für den Spätsommer nächsten Jahres geplant ist. Wie sie es ohne Spaniens Zustimmung durchführen wollen, ist unklar. Vage heißt es nur, dass die entsprechenden Artikel der spanischen Verfassung durchaus zu Gunsten der Katalanen geändert werden könnten. Wenn es gar nicht anders geht, würde Katalonien aber auch ohne spanische Unterstützung versuchen, die Unabhängigkeit zu erreichen. „Zur Not mit katalanischem oder europäischem Recht“, sagt Artur Mas.

     

    Während die Katalanen schon davon schwärmen, wie viel besser es ihnen ohne die Spanier gehen wird und sie sich vorstellen, wie sie als unabhängiger Staat der Europäische Union beitreten, mahnen EU-Justiziare zur Vorsicht. Im EU-Vertrag stehe, dass die Union die territoriale Integrität seiner Mitglieder respektieren müsse und nicht einseitige Unabhängigkeitserklärungen von Teilen eines Mitgliedsstaates anerkennen könne. Der Weg zur Unabhängigkeit ist weit, schwierig, unkalkulierbar. Nur wahrhaben will man das nicht so recht in Katalonien.

     

    Auch Vics Bürgermeister Josep Maria Vila d’Abadal nicht. „Sollen wir zuschauen, wie Spanien versucht, uns zu eliminieren?“, fragt er. Er blickt noch einmal über den Platz, auf die bunten Fahnen an den Hauswänden. Es scheint, dass aus katalanischer Sicht der Graben zwischen Spaniern und Katalanen unüberwindbar geworden ist. Dass es nichts gibt, das stärker ist als der Wunsch, sich zu lösen. Wirklich gar nichts? D’Abadal denkt nach. Schließlich sagt er: „Wissen Sie, meine Frau ist Spanierin.“

  • Aloja (15693 missatges)

    http://www.toscananews.net/home/catalogna-una-catena-umana-verso-indipendenza/

     

    Catalogna, una catena umana verso l’indipendenza

     

    Catalogna, una catena umana verso l’indipendenza

     

    BARCELLONA (Catalogna) – Si scrive Catalogna, si legge indipendenza. Mai come adesso, gli animi e gli entusiasmi del popolo catalano si stanno sempre più concretizzando nell’obiettivo comune del definitivo allontanamento da Madrid. Giorno dopo giorno, si stanno intensificando le azioni a favore di una consultazione popolare sull’indipendenza che la Spagna continua a voler negare, soprattutto per paura di perdere.

     

    Invece di supportare le ragioni del “no” all’indipendenza, Madrid continua a definire “illegale” il referendum programmato per il 2014. Lo scorso 8 maggio, il Tribunale Costituzionale di Spagna aveva sospeso la “dichiarazione di sovranità e del diritto a decidere del popolo di Catalogna”. Così, Madrid continua a negare il supremo diritto di effettuarlo in democrazia. Una negazione di quella sovranità esercitata dal popolo che trova le radici soprattutto nel partito postfranchista del PP (Partido Popular), falcidiato da lotte e scandali interni, ma che si sta trasformando in un boomerang per gli spagnoli. Infatti, è storicamente testato che laddove si neghi la libertà, la ribellione sarà molto più forte e, di conseguenza, il fronte del “sì” continua ad acquistare terreno tra gli indecisi. Secondo gli ultimi sondaggi del Centre d’Estudis d’Opinió, infatti, il 55,6% dei catalani sarebbe a favore di una Catalogna indipendente, mentre i contrari sarebbero soltanto il 23,4%. L’astensione si aggirerebbe intorno al 15,3%, mentre gli indecisi sarebbero il 3,8%; coloro che non hanno risposto l’1,3% e coloro che hanno dato altre risposte lo 0,6%.

     

    Per quanto riguarda le Istituzioni, molti Comuni si sono apertamente schierati a favore dell’indipendenza, apponendo cartelli ufficiali che vanno in questo senso all’ingresso delle rispettive città. Inoltre, lo scorso 26 giugno, si tenne presso il Parlamento catalano la riunione costitutiva del Patto Nazionale per il Diritto a Decidere per arrivare finalmente al referendum. Questa organizzazione è formata dalle istituzioni più rappresentative dell’ex Principat, dal mondo locale, dalle forze politiche e dalla società civile. Al Patto partecipano anche le organizzazioni sindacali, economiche e d’impresa e proprio questo fatto contraddice la notizia di una fuga delle imprese dall’indipendentismo catalano. Infatti, è vero che dal 2010 ad oggi circa mille imprese (una piccolissima parte di quelle presenti a Barcellona e dintorni) si sono trasferite dalla Catalogna a Madrid, ma non perché in fuga dall’indipendentismo come sostengono gli spagnoli, bensì perché, grazie soprattutto al Pil della Catalogna, Madrid si può permettere una tassazione agevolata che attrae aziende non solo dal Principat, ma anche dalle altre zone del Paese iberico.

    senyera catalogna

    E, comunque, per quegli imprenditori che temono il cambio di Stato, potrebbe entrare in soccorso la Francia, in crisi di rapporti con la Spagna. Infatti, il Paese transalpino ora come ora starebbe alla finestra perché una eventuale indipendenza della Catalogna “spagnola” potrebbe aprire nuovi rapporti commerciali sul fronte dei Pirenei senza, però, avere ripercussioni sulla “francese” Catalogna del Nord, dove l’indipendentismo non è poi così radicato. Ma un altro Paese amico, nonostante il venturo referendum indipendentista in Scozia (dove, per la prima volta, il fronte del “sì” avrebbe superato quello del “no”), è la Gran Bretagna che vedrebbe nella Catalogna un possibile alleato per il caso-Gibilterra.

     

    Della questione catalana finalmente non se ne sta parlando solo nella Penisola iberica, ma anche nel resto del mondo con le manifestazioni (soprattutto catene umane) che si sono svolte o che sono in programma negli Stati Uniti, in Australia, in Scozia, in Cina, in Brasile, in Giappone e pure in Italia. Addirittura, c’è anche chi ha proposto di fare la Via Catalana pure a Madrid (#ViaCatalanaMadrid) perché, come spiega l’ideatore, l’attore Joel Joan, «anche gli spagnoli hanno il diritto di sapere che vogliamo essere come loro: indipendenti».

     

    Un grido, quello della Catalogna indipendente e nuovo Stato d’Europa, che risuonerà nel mondo mercoledì 11 settembre quando, alle ore 17:14, durante la Diada, si celebrerà la Via Catalana (#ViaCatalana), ossia la catena umana per l’indipendenza lunga quanto tutta la Catalogna. Tutto il Principat è chiamato a raccolta per una grande manifestazione che potrebbe essere davvero l’ultima da Paese non indipendente dopo tre secoli di oppressione spagnola.

  • Aloja (15693 missatges)

    El redactor d'aquesta em sona:

     

     

    Spain has let Catalonia down, now it must let it go

    The government in Madrid stands in the way of an independent Catalonia. We march on our national day for a referendum

    Catalonia independence day
    An estimated one and a half million Catalans demonstrated in Barcelona on 11 September 2012 demanding independence from Spain and affirming its European status. Photograph: Jordi Borr S Abell/Demotix/Corbis

    Catalonia is at a crossroads. The demand of our people is to hold a free vote on our future path – just as Scotland plans next year, just as other European countries have done in the last few decades. The Spanish state must now find a route to accommodate the wishes of our citizens.

     

    With the return of democracy after Franco's dictatorship, we – the Catalans – were able to rebuild our country and our heritage. For over 30 years, Catalonians have worked with Madrid to build a democratic, modern, European Spain, to create a state which could be ours. We had hoped that Spain would be understanding, tolerant, and above all respectful of Catalonia's personality, of its culture and its language, and of the hopes for progress and wellbeing of the Catalan people.

     

    But recent events have forced us to think differently. Our statute of autonomy, agreed between our parliament and the Spanish parliament in 2006, and then supported by our people in a referendum, was unilaterally rewritten by the Spanish constitutional court in 2010, in a case brought by Mariano Rajoy, now prime minister of Spain. The Spanish education minister has made explicit threats against Catalan language education. These events have changed the relationship between our citizens and the Spanish state.

     

    When we proposed to Madrid in 2012 that we should have the same fiscal relationship with the central government as is enjoyed by the Basque country and Navarre, our approach was brusquely rejected. Although we contribute much more to the Spanish treasury than most regions, we get disproportionately less in return – Catalonia ends up with considerably less per capita public expenditure then the average for all Spanish regions. Madrid has not even honoured its financial commitments to us under the revised autonomy statute. The Catalan people are effectively being told that we are not partners but subjects.

     

    Some in Madrid have stated that there is no possible legal path for us to vote on our future. We disagree. Our own analysis suggests a number of perfectly workable options. The issue is clearly not legal but political. If Britain could delegate powers to Scotland to conduct its independence referendum, Madrid can respond to our people's demands with similar flexibility and imagination.

    The will of our people is clear. On 11 September 2012, a million and a half people demonstrated in the streets of Barcelona for "Catalonia – Europe's new state". In our regional elections on 25 November 2012, parties supporting Catalonia's right to self-determination won 107 of the 135 seats. Polls show that 75% of those asked now support the right of citizens to be consulted in a referendum. The Catalan people have given a clear mandate to their representatives to move forward with the self-determination agenda.

     

    This process must be, and will be, scrupulously democratic, and endorsed by the direct decision of our people. We will be demonstrably transparent about our plans. We intend to be absolutely peaceful, with a positive and open attitude. And of course we are and will always be European – Catalonia is already fully integrated with the European Union Catalonia and intends to remain within the internal market framework of the EU and the euro. With its innovative, dynamic, export-led economy, an independent Catalonia would be an asset to the wider EU economy – not a liability.

     

    We do not seek isolation. Barcelona and Catalonia have always been diverse, dynamic and open, at the centre of trade routes across the Mediterranean and further afield, absorbing from the world's cultures, and contributing our own creativity in turn. But the terms on which business is conducted are crucial, and our mutual understanding with Madrid has collapsed. Reasonable offers are rejected out of hand; agreements are subverted by biased court rulings. The Spanish state has not discharged its obligations to Catalonia and its citizens.

     

    On 11 September this year, our national day, hundreds of thousands of people will form a human chain throughout Catalonia, from the Pyrenees to our southern limits, inspired by the Baltic peoples who demonstrated in favour of restoring their freedom in 1989, united in demanding, "Let Us Vote!" For democratic states and people, there can be only one answer. Spain should follow Britain's example and allow the referendum to take place.

     

    http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/sep/10/spain-catalonia-independent-referendum?CMP=twt_gu

  • Hanseatic Usuari sumador (21218 missatges)

    Washington Post:

     

    Catalonia readies for large pro-independence march in Barcelona, human chain crossing region

    (Emilio Morenatti/ Associated Press ) - In this photo taken on June. 29, 2013, supporters hold their “estelada” flags as they attend to a pro-independence festival in the Nou Camp stadium in Barcelona, Spain. The Spanish region of Catalonia is set to see possibly its largest ever pro-independence rally on Wednesday when organizers are hoping to surpass the around one million people who took to streets of Barcelona last year, many of whom called for a free state. Besides the traditional march in Barcelona held on the regional holiday of Sept. 11, a pro-independence grass roots group has organized a human chain stretching for over 400 kilometers north and south across the economically powerful northeastern region.

    • (Emilio Morenatti/ Associated Press ) - In this photo taken ></a></li><li style=(Emilio Morenatti/ Associated Press ) - In this photo taken ></a></li><li style=(Emilio Morenatti/ Associated Press ) - In this photo taken ></a></li><li style=(Emilio Morenatti/ Associated Press ) - In this photo taken ></a></li><li style=(Emilio Morenatti/ Associated Press ) - In this photo taken ></a></li></ul><div class=
  • Aloja (15693 missatges)

    L'escriptor d'aquesta columna també és força conegut:

     

     

    http://www.nytimes.com/2013/09/11/opinion/global/a-referendum-for-catalonia.html?_r=2&;

    A Referendum for Catalonia

    By ARTUR MAS
    Published: September 10, 2013

    BARCELONA — On Sept. 11, 2012, Catalonia’s national day, about 1.5 million people marched through Barcelona carrying banners saying “Catalonia, Europe’s Next State.” The march was a peaceful expression of hope. Today, with the same purpose, hundreds of thousands of people will form a human chain across Catalonia.

     

    The history of Catalonia goes back centuries when Iberian tribes traded with Greeks and Carthaginians along the Mediterranean coast. An identifiable Catalan culture developed in the Middle Ages and has strengthened through time, despite the loss of the Catalan sovereignty at the end of the War of Spanish Succession in 1714, and the subsequent repeated suppression of our government, schools, language and values.

     

    Catalonia fought hard to defend the Second Republic in the Spanish Civil War from 1936 to 1939. But democracy and autonomy were crushed and the Catalan language was made illegal as Spain endured 40 years of brutal dictatorship under Franco.

     

    After at his death in 1975, Spain made an astonishing transformation to a multiparty democracy, and in 1978 a new Spanish Constitution recognized Catalonia’s autonomy and language once again. The institutions of Catalan autonomy continued to develop with the reconstitution of the Catalan presidency and Parliament, along with the return of the Catalan language to our schools.

     

    But the advances haven’t met Catalan expectations. Countless proposals from Catalonia to Madrid have been rejected out of hand or subverted by court rulings. For example, in 2005 the Catalan regional Parliament passed a new Statute of Autonomy delineating powers that should be delegated to the region. The Spanish Parliament approved it in 2006, though only after removing key elements. Nonetheless, the Catalan people approved the weakened version of the statute via referendum in June 2006, seeing that something was better than nothing. Then in 2010 the Spanish Constitutional Court unilaterally revoked and rewrote crucial sections of the statute in a process that the Catalan government believes was procedurally dubious.

     

    Though financial concessions were made to the Basque region, our repeated requests for a new fiscal pact with Madrid to mitigate the current unjust system are constantly denied. We have been willing to pay more than our fair share to the central government to support poorer regions of Spain, but it has gone too far. Catalonia now receives less public expenditure per capita than more than half the other regions of Spain, though we contribute far more than average. In addition the Spanish government has failed to carry out its investment obligations, even in their far more limited scope as required in the weakened statute.

     

    There are many more examples that have led the Catalan people to feel we have exhausted every means possible to reason and negotiate with Madrid and the only option left is to seek sovereignty. Recent parliamentary elections in Catalonia gave us a mandate to call for a referendum on Catalonia’s future, something a majority of our people and political parties support.

     

    There are five different legal ways within Spanish law that a referendum could be authorized. Canada granted Quebec the right to hold two separate referendums and has protections within Canada because of this. More recently, Britain gave Scotland the right to decide its future in an independence referendum next year. But despite all our efforts to seek this basic civil right Spain refuses.

    I appealed to Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy for his assistance on the referendum in March 2013 with the support of 80 percent of the Catalan Parliament. The request was rebuffed. In July, I made a formal written request to hold a referendum. We are still waiting for a reply.

     

    We do not seek to isolate ourselves. Catalans are deeply pro-European and we do not imagine a future outside the European Union. Catalonia would have the eighth largest economy in the union and would be a net contributor to its budgets. We would be a solid European Union partner for strengthened political unity, security strength and economic growth.

     

    We also seek no harm to Spain. We are bound together by geography, history and our people, as more than 40 percent of Catalonia’s population came from other parts of Spain or has close family ties. We want to be Spain’s brother, as equal partners. It goes beyond money or cultural differences. We seek the right to have more control over our economy, our politics, our social services.

    The best way to solve any problem is to remove its cause. We seek the freedom to vote. Every individual has a right to expect this from his government, while also sharing equally in the benefits. In Europe conflicts are resolved democratically, and that is all we ask.

     

    We seek justice and equality for our diverse society. Over 17 percent of our 7.5 million people came from abroad. But we are united in our call to let us be heard at the ballot box.

     

    Artur Mas is president of Catalonia.

  • popcalent (7744 missatges)

    El diari The Guardian demana als seus lectors que els hi enviïn fotografies de la cadena humana mitjançant aquest web:

     

    https://witness.theguardian.com/assignment/522f24c5e4b0716040115ef4

     

    Noticia a l'ARA: http://www.ara.cat/viacatalanamon/The-Guardian-fotografies-Via-Catalana_0_991101062.html

  • EPS (43192 missatges)

    Fent una ullada a mitjans llatinoamericans, lloc afí tradicionalment a l'espanyolisme, de moment silenci




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